INGREDIENTS.
Ingredients Queal Photo
Go to the Recipe page for a shorter overview

Oat Flour

 

Oat Flour is an oatmeal made from very finely ground whole grain oats. Sourced from throughout the EU, it is processed in Germany. Our oat flour is held to the highest standards for Mycotoxins, heavy metals, 3-MCPD, dioxins and PCBs, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, colourings and pesticides. It is also free from GMOs.

Maltodextrin

 

Maltodextrin is a complex carbohydrate, that delivers fast-release carbohydrates. Although it has a high GI (120), this is negated by the other ingredients in Queal, keeping Queal’s overall GI below 70. Our Maltodextrin is created from cornstarch and is sourced from the EU. It, therefore, adheres to all strict regulations for health and safety, including those for Mycotoxins, heavy metals, 3-MCPD, Dioxins and PCBs, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, colourings, and pesticides. It also does not contain any GMOs.

Soy Flour

 

Our Soy Flour is full-fat toasted soy flour, sourced from various countries in the EU, and processed in Austria. As with all our ingredients, it is therefore held to the highest health- and safety standards, including those for various contaminants, and ingredients. (Pesticides, colourings, GMOs, Hydrocarbons, PCBs, Dioxins, heavy metals, Mycotoxins, etc.)

 

Soy is a natural product and one of the main ingredients in Queal. It’s a great source of macro-nutrients (carbohydrates and fats) and has a good mix of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals).

 

Worried about the effect of soy on hormone levels? Click here.

Whey Protein

 

Whey Protein is manufactured from sweet cheese whey using cross-flow membrane filtration. It is basically a by-product of the cheese-making process. Our Whey Protein is 82% whey protein concentrate, which is agglomerated and instantiated. It is an excellent source of natural protein which is vegetarian. It is sourced from the UK and NL, and therefore adheres to all strict EU food health- and safety- regulations.

This is what makes Queal vegetarian, not vegan.

Learn more about why Queal is high in protein. https://queal.com/protein-why-high-queal/

Flaxseed-Oil

 

Flaxseed- or Linseed-Oil is a great source of Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids. It is, as the name suggests, produced by cold-pressing flaxseeds. We incorporated the oil into the Queal powder using a micro-coating technique, eliminating the need to add the oil separately to your shake. Our Flaxseed-oil is sourced from Belgium, and therefore adheres to all strict EU food health- and safety- regulations.

Creamer

 

Our creamer is what gives Queal that nice velvety smooth texture. It also supplies some of the good fats you need. The main ingredient in the creamer is Palm Oil. We use RSPO certified (WWF approved) environmentally sustainable Palm Oil.

Micro-nutrient Mix

 

The micro-nutrient mix is a very fine powder that is custom made for us in a high-tech facility in the Netherlands. It is a combination of a wide variety of minerals, vitamins, and other micro-nutrients that are not represented by the Macro-nutrient ingredients in Queal. A full list of the forms of micro-nutrients can be provided on request.

Xanthan Gum

 

Xanthan Gum is a widely used additive used as an emulsifier (to get the oils impregnated into the powder), stabilizer (to increase the lifespan of Queal), and thickening agent (to make the texture of Queal, once mixed, more palatable). Again, we get ours from within the EU.

Glucose Syrup

 

Made from corn, Glucose Syrup is a very sweet substance. We use a tiny amount of this to sweeten Queal. We get it from France.

Stabiliser

 

Adding a Stabiliser improves the taste and best-before-date of Queal. We used potassium- and sodium trifosfates as a stabilising agent. It may sound complex, but they’re just fancy salt, with absolutely no negative side-effects associated with them. There’s only a minuscule amount of it in Queal.

Anticoagulant

 

This stuff makes sure you don’t get clumps in your Queal. We use Siliciumdioxide, which is mined from bog-standard German sand of all places. They are tiny particles that break the surface tension to reduce clumping.

Sweetener

 

We use a tiny bit of sweetener in Queal to increase the, surprise surprise, sweetness! We use Sucralose, which is 600x sweeter than sugar, without the calories of sugar.

Natural Flavouring

 

Each one of our flavours has a different flavouring additive to create the great taste! Cool Chocolate for instance has Cacao added to it. All flavouring additives are completely natural, and sourced from within the EU and are therefore held to strict EU regulations.

Salt

 

Your body needs a little bit of salt each day. In Queal we make sure you get this, but not too much.

Inulin

 

Inulin is fibre, which is good for the intestines. It is created from roots of, among others, the cichorei-plant. We source ours from within The Netherlands.

Allergens

 

Please note that the following allergens are present in Queal.

Gluten

 

There are gluten in Queal.

Soy

 

There is soy in Queal (like, a lot).

Egg

 

Only possible trace amounts, this isn’t an ingredient of Queal (but some components are processed in the same factory where these sorts of products are also processed.)

Lactose

 

Only a relatively small amount of lactose is present in our Whey Protein.

 

We use Whey Protein Concentrate in Queal. The amount of lactose in there is subject to slight variation but small enough that it doesn’t pose a problem to mildly sensitive lactose-intolerant people. Especially in combination with a lactase tablet. Note that we use concentrate, not isolate. Concentrate has low levels of lactose. Probably fine for those with a mild lactose intolerance. Isolate would be virtually lactose-free, but we don’t use that.

EFSA guidelines

The Queal recipe is built around the official nutrition guidelines as set out by governmental bodies. Unfortunately, these differ a lot based on where you live, and even per regulatory body within countries. Additionally, they are often outdated or based on old, refuted, or unsatisfactory research.

 

The Recommended Daily Amount for all the nutritional values, on which the Queal recipes are based off, come from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This regulatory body updates their guidelines based off of new information on a yearly basis, in a peer-reviewed process. This creates valid, and up-to-date recommendations to base state-of-the-art nutrition on.

 

We are constantly keeping track of the latest findings as published/reviewed by the EFSA and will update the Queal recipe as need be. Of course, we will always notify our customers when this happens.

 

Whenever the EFSA does not have a recommendation, we looked at the Dutch recommendations for good nutrition as set out in Guideline 2008/100/EG and the VVC attachment XIII.

 

If even here there are no guidelines (e.g. for some vitamins), we look at the US recommendations from the HSS & USDA, which are updated every 5 years.


NUTRIENTS.

Energy

 

The body needs energy to sustain itself. It gets this by metabolising various nutrients, subdivided into Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates. Energy from food is often measured in kilocalories, or kcal. The government-mandated “average” amount of kcal needed is 2000kcal, though in reality, the number is often higher (2100kcal to 2600kcal).

 

Go here for more info: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3005.pdf

Fat

 

Fats, or fatty acids, are a type of lipid and are essential to the body. They are metabolised for energy or to build cells. Some essential vitamins, such as A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble and require fat in order to be transported and absorbed by the body. Queal’s sources of fat include Oats, Soy, Whey, and Olive- and Linseed-oil.

 

Go here for the reference values: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461/abstract

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Learn more about fats: https://queal.com/fats-facts/

Saturated

 

Saturated fat is also known as “solid fat”. That’s because it is solid at room temperature. It is mostly in animal foods (meat, milk, and cheese) and tropical oils (coconut oil, palm oil).

Saturated fats are bad because they cause your LDL-level to rise. (LDL was the bad kind of lipoprotein!) This means more risk of your arteries clogging up.

The advice given by governmental guidelines for saturated fat is: Make sure at most 10% of your caloric intake is from saturated fats. That comes down to 23 grams of saturated fat for a 2100kcal diet.

Monounsaturated

 

This fat is in nuts and olive-, canola-, and peanut-oil. It deals a double health whammy of lowering your LDL-level (the bad kind) whilst simultaneously increasing your HDL-level (the good kind).

Polyunsaturated

 

This fat is mostly in sunflower-, flaxseed-, and fish-oil. Eating Polyunsaturated fats instead of Saturated fats will lower you LDL-levels (the bad kind).

Polyunsaturated fat can be sub-divided into Omega-3 fatty acids, and Omega-6 fatty acids.

Trans-unsaturated fatty acids

 

Trans fats, also known as (partially) hydrogenated fat is “the ugly”. It takes everything that’s bad about saturated fats and makes it worse. There is really no good reason to eat any trans fats.

Why then is it in our food? Well, for one, it makes things super tasty! The process of hydrogenation makes the fat harder at room temperature. It makes snack foods such as chips nice and crispy, and gives that satisfying crunch to your fast-food French fries.

The advice given by governmental guidelines for trans fats is: Don’t eat them. Just don’t…

Which is why there are virtually no trans-fats in Queal.

Carbs

 

Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy for the body. There are fast and slow types of carbohydrates, depending on the speed with which they are absorbed by the body. Queal’s recipe is designed to create a balance between the two. The main sources of carbohydrates in Queal are Oats Flour, Maltodextrin, and Soy.

 

Go here for the reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/1462.pdf

Sugars

 

Sugar is a subgroup of Carbohydrates, divided into Monosaccharides and Disaccharides. It’s broken down in the body to Glucose, fructose, and in the case of lactose to galactose. They provide fast energy. Queal has about 4,5g/100g sugar, which is very good.

Polyols

 

Another subgroup of carbohydrates. Also known as sugar alcohol (not to be confused with what we commonly think of as alcohol), they are a different shape than sugar. Less sweet, and less fast carbohydrates.

Starch

 

Your bog-standard Polysaccharide. It’s slow carbohydrates.

Fibre

 

Fibre is essential for the overall health of the body and specifically the digestive system. Intestinal microflora which aid in your digestion thrives on fibres such as cellulose, which cannot be broken down by the natural enzymes in your system. The fibre content in Queal comes from Oats in the form of beta-glucans, which the EFSA says reduces disease risk. Additional fibre content is provided from Soy and in the form of xanthan gum.

 

Go here for the reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/1462.pdf

Protein

 

Protein is necessary for the body’s ability to grow and repair itself, especially muscles. Proteins are broken down into base amino acids by the metabolism. All human proteins are made up of the same 20 amino acids, 9 of which must be consumed through diet, in different amounts. Queal’s source of protein comes from whey, soy, and oats, and contains all the essential amino acids.

 

Go here for the aminogram (overview of the amino acids in Queal): https://queal.freshdesk.com/solution/articles/6000044330-what-amino-acids-does-queal-contain-

 

Go here for the reference values: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2557/abstract

 

Read more about Protein: https://queal.com/protein-why-high-queal/

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

 

Omega-3 fatty acids come in two types: Short-chain (ALA) and long-chain (EPA, DHA). Humans need both types and can convert short-chain to long-chain forms, but not very efficiently. ALA is proven to contribute to the maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels, and EPA and DHA are linked to contributing to the normal functioning of the heart. Queal’s sources of Omega-3 are linseed- and olive-oil, both micro coated into the powder.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1461.htm

 

Natural source: Oat Flour and Flax-seed oil
Supplemental form: None

Omega-6 Fatty Acids

 

Part of the group of polyunsaturated fats, Omega-6 fatty acids contribute to the maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels. Queal sources it’s Omega-6 from Olive- and Linseed-Oil, which is incorporated into the powder using a coating technique.

 

Natural source: Oat Flour and Flax-seed- and olive-oil
Supplemental form: None

Calcium

 

Calcium is a mineral, primarily used by the body in the bones and teeth. Though it is also utilised in the nervous system, and muscle control. Furthermore, calcium is needed for transporting other vital micro-nutrients like potassium and magnesium to where they need to go. Queal’s source of calcium is calcium carbonate, which is derived from rocks such as calcite and limestone.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/4101.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Calcium D Pantothenate

Chromium

 

Chromium is not deemed an essential nutrient by the EFSA. In the United States, the guideline is 25-35 µg for females and males respectively.

 

Go here for EFSA discussion: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3845.pdf

 

Natural source: None
Supplemental form: Chromium Chloride 1%

Copper

 

Copper is a trace element involved in the forming of tissues and bones. It is also part of the creation of pigmentation of the hair and as an element in the proper functioning of your immune system. The copper in Queal comes mostly from Soy, as well as Copper Gluconate.

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: None

Iodine

 

Iodine is important for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland, which produces hormones that control the development of the nervous system, as well as basic metabolism. Added Potassium Iodide ensures Queal has the proper amount of iodine for a healthy diet.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3660.pdf

 

Natural source: None
Supplemental form: Potassium iodide 5%

Iron

 

Iron is mostly used by the body as part of haemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells which carries oxygen around the body. It is, therefore, a very important essential nutrient. The iron in Queal comes from Ferric Pyrophosphate, a standard form used often in fortified cereals.

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Ferric Pyrophosphate FCC (25% Fe)

Magnesium

 

Bone-growth, protein-building, a proper functioning of the nervous system, Magnesium is important in all of it! It is nearly impossible to get a shortage of magnesium, as it is in a lot of foodstuffs. The magnesium in Queal comes mostly from the Oats, which contain more than enough to meet a person’s recommended daily needs (EFSA 2015).

 

The quantity of Magnesium in Queal differs from the official Dutch recommendations, as the EFSA has published an updated new recommendation.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/150511a.htm

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour, and Whey Protein
Supplemental form: None

Manganese

 

Manganese serves as a co-factor for many different kinds of enzymes involved in the energy-, and digestion systems. It being a co-factor basically means it is necessary for the enzyme to do its work. In this case, various processes dealing with metabolism and anti-oxidation. The oats in Queal provide more than enough manganese to satisfy the Recommended Daily Needs as per the EFSA recommendations.

 

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/fr/search/doc/3419.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: None

 

 

Read more about Manganese: https://queal.com/about-manganese/

Molybdenum

 

Molybdenum is a trace element important in the digestion processes of the human body. It is an agent in the enzymes important in the metabolism. Queal’s Molybdenum comes from the Oat Flour, which naturally holds enough Molybdenum to adhere to EFSA recommendations.

http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3333.pdf

Natural source: Oat Flour
Supplemental form: None

Phosphorus

 

Phosphorus is critical in carrying energy through the body, as a primary part of the body’s energy management system. Furthermore, it is used to strengthen bones and teeth. The oats and soy in Queal contain enough phosphorus to satisfy the recommended daily amount (EFSA 2015).

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/consultations/call/150310b.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour, and Whey Protein
Supplemental form: None

Potassium

 

Potassium is crucial for neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and heart function, as well as hormonal- and fluid balance, and blood pressure. Queal’s sources of potassium are the Soy, Oats, and Whey protein, though a small amount of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate, a standard form of potassium used as a dietary additive, is included to get the recommended daily amount (EFSA 2015).

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour, and Whey Protein
Supplemental form: Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate

 

Read more about Potassium: https://queal.com/potassium-not-potatoes/

Selenium

 

Selenium is a trace element that functions as an antioxidant. It is situated mostly in the liver and protects the red blood cells and other cells from damage. Selenium detoxifies metals that are introduced in the body and is also important for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. There is even research that indicates selenium might help protect against prostate cancer. In Queal, the selenium comes from the Oats, Soy, and added Sodium Selenite.

 

The quantity of Selenium in Queal differs from the official Dutch recommendations, as the EFSA has published an updated new recommendation.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3846.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Sodium selenite 5%

 

Read more about Selenium: https://queal.com/selenium-an-antioxidant/

Sodium

 

Sodium is a major agent in pH- and blood-pressure-regulation. A lot of people ingest too much sodium, as modern day pre-packaged foods often add a lot, to improve flavour. Too much sodium increases the risk of high blood-pressure and heart-disease. Queal has no more than the recommended daily amount, and therefore avoids this.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3844.pdf

 

Natural source: Minimal
Supplemental form: Sodium Citrate

Sulfur

 

Is not deemed an essential nutrient, however, there is a significant amount naturally occurring in Queal through the Oat- and Soy Flour.

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: None

Zinc

 

Nearly a quarter of the global population suffers from Zinc deficiency. Which is disconcerting, as zinc is, among other things, involved in the uses of protein, the growth and development of tissue, and a proper functioning of the immune system. The zinc in Queal comes from the Oats and Soy, as well as added Zinc Oxide.

The quantity of Zinc in Queal differs from the official Dutch recommendations, as the EFSA has published an updated new recommendation.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3844.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Zinc oxide

Vitamin A

 

Vitamin A, also known as Retinol, is good for your skin and eyes, and your general growth and immune system. It is stored in your fat, with any excess being excreted through your urine. The Vitamin A in Queal comes from added Acetate, a standard accepted dietary supplemental form.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/4028.pdf

 

Natural source: None
Supplemental form: Vit. A Acetate 325 GFP

Vitamin B6

 

Vitamin B6 is an all-around important nutrient. It is needed in the metabolism, in the handling of amino-acids. Vitamin B6 also regulates certain hormones, and is important in growth, the production of blood, the central nervous system, and the immune system. The main source of Vitamin B6 in Queal is Pyridoxine HCl, a standard form Vitamin B6 supplement.

 

The quantity of Vitamin B6 in Queal differs from the official Dutch recommendations, as there is not harm in adding more, and some research suggests a higher level would be better.

 

Go here for reference values: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out80c_en.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour

Supplemental form: Pyridoxine Hcl

Vitamin B12

 

Vitamin B12 is required for the creation of red blood cells and a proper functioning of the nervous system.

 

Go here for reference values: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out89.pdf

 

Natural source: None
Supplemental form: Vit. B12 0.1% Maltodex

Vitamin C

 

Vitamin C is an essential co-factor for enzyme reactions in the body dealing with the forming of tissue. A deficiency of Vitamin C, also known as scurvy, is noticeable by a breakdown of skin and body tissues. The Vitamin C in Queal is sourced from Sodium Ascorbate.

 

The quantity of Vitamin C in Queal differs from the official Dutch recommendations, as there is not harm in adding more, and some research suggests a higher level would be better.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3418.pdf

 

Natural source: None
Supplemental form: Sodium Ascorbate

Vitamin D

 

Vitamin D is needed to process calcium into the body. It is, therefore, a prerequisite for growth and good strong bones and teeth.

 

Natural source: None
Supplemental form: Vit D3 100 CWS CapsuDar

Vitamin E

 

Vitamin E is a broad nutrient, useful as anything from an enzyme co-factor, antioxidant, and as an enabler of neurological function. The alpha-tocopherol form is most efficiently absorbed and accumulated in the human body, and is the form used in Queal.

 

The quantity of Vitamin E needed is highly dependent on the diet and metabolism of the person. We decided to aim high on Vitamin E, as there is no harm in ingesting too much.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/consultations/call/150309.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour and Flaxseed-oil
Supplemental form: Vit. E 50% CWS CapsuDar

Vitamin K

 

Vitamin K is important for a good coagulation of the blood. Soy provides a fair amount of Vitamin K, which we have supplemented with more to provide you with a secure recommended daily amount of Vitamin K.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/doc/822.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: K powder 5%

Thiamin

 

Vitamin B1 or Thiamin is essential for the energy systems in the body, as well as the proper functioning of the heart muscles and central nervous system. Naturally occurring Thiamin in the Oats in Queal, with added Thiamine Mononitrate, ensure a proper amount of Thiamin is ingested when using Queal.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/864.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Thiamine Mononitrate

 

Read more about Thiamin: https://queal.com/thiamine-first-b-vitamin/

Riboflavin

 

Vitamin B2, or Riboflavin, is essential for several energy-storage systems in the human body and helps with releasing the energy from ingested carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The pure form of Riboflavin is the main source of Vitamin B2 in Queal.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/ndatopics/docs/ndatolerableuil.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy Flour and Whey Protein
Supplemental form: Riboflavin BP

 

Read more about Riboflavin: https://queal.com/riboflavin-the-yellow-vitamin/

Niacin

 

Niacin, or Vitamin B3, is essential in metabolism- and hormone synthesis- related systems. The niacin in Queal comes from Nicotinamide.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3759.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Nicotinamide

 

Read more about Niacin: https://queal.com/niacin-just-good-for-you/

Folate

 

Folate is one of the very few vitamins that people in Europe don’t always ingest enough of in their standard diet. It is important for a proper functioning of the body, especially the creation of white- and red-blood cells. Folate is also known as Vitamin B11. In Queal, most of the folate is found natural occurring in the Soy.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3893.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Folic Acid 10%

Pantothenic Acid

 

Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid is required for the building and breaking down of proteins and fats in the body. In Queal, Vitamin B5 comes from naturally occurring sources in the Oats and Soy, as well as Calcium D-Pantothenate.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3581.pdf

 

Natural source: Soy- and Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Calcium D Pantothenate

Biotin

 

Biotin, also known as Vitamin B8 or Vitamin H, is important in processes related to the extraction of energy from food, and as an agent in the creation of fatty acids. It contributes to the maintenance of normal skin and hair. A lack of biotin causes skin conditions, anaemia, and depression.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3580.pdf

 

Natural source: None
Supplemental form: D-Biotin 1% (Z)

 

Read more about Biotin: https://queal.com/biotin-extracting-energy-from-food/

Choline

 

Choline is necessary for the functioning of neurones in the brain. The body is capable of producing enough Choline to function properly, and there is no recommended daily amount for Choline in European Guidelines. However, some research has shown that added choline improves memory functions in older age, and there is no negative effect to added Choline. US guidelines incorporate this.

 

The quantity of Choline in Queal differs from the official Dutch regulations. They do not see Choline as an essential nutrient. However, in the USA it is assigned as such. As there is no harm in higher quantities of Choline (it is actually shown to have a positive effect on memory), we decided to follow US guidelines.

 

Go here for reference values: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/2056.pdf

 

Natural source: Oat Flour
Supplemental form: Choline bitartrate

 

Read more about Choline: https://queal.com/choline-according-american-guidelines/

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